Are speech and language disorders the same thing?

There is a pronounced difference between speech and language.
Speech is the motor act of speaking orally. Our brain sequences our articulators to produce the sounds, words, and sentences.

Language is the ability to process thoughts into words and then formulating word/phrases/sentences/conversations.


At what age should I expect my child to talk? Should I wait until my child is two years-old to have an evaluation?

evaluating milestones in speech-language development
Today, we know the sequence that infants who are exposed any of the world’s languages should begin to “talk.” Your child will first coo then babbles and jargons (more complex babbling sentence-like sounds) and then first words and combining two-word sentence-like utterances. For more details on these language milestones go to http://www.asha.org/



What is expressive language and receptive language?

Expressive language is one’s ability to verbally express their ideas, wants in grammatically acceptable utterances and vocabulary.
Receptive language is one’s ability to comprehend and process language.

What are the credentials next to your name represent? Is this something I should look for when hiring a therapist?

The majority of speech-language pathologists in the United States have the credentials “CCC-SLP” (Certificate of Clinical Competence in Speech Language Pathology) after their names. This represents our national certifications, additional training, fellowship year and exams that American Speech and Hearing Association (ASHA) requires.

I was told my child could become language delayed because we are raising him bilingual. Is this true?

The bilingual children all over the world develop language milestones within the normal developmental range. Depending on the exposure of the two languages, development on one or both languages may vary. Research has found that at the beginning of the kindergarten year the average monolingual child has a vocabulary of 5,000 words. The average bilingual child begins kindergarten with approximately 2,500 words in language one (English) and 2,500 language two (e.g. Spanish). By the end of the kindergarten year, the typically developing bilingual child has a vocabulary of 10,000 words (an average of 5,000 words in each language).

My child has had a few ear infections. Should this concern me?

Ear infections, or Otis media (the build-up of fluid in the middle ear), distort the sounds a child hears. If your child has frequent bouts of Otis media they are not hearing speech sounds clearly. This can potentially impact language development.

My child had psychological testing and we were told she has “executive function” difficulties. What does that mean and what can we do to help her?

In the early grades your child was successful in school. However around fourth grade you noticed a change. Your child started to appear disorganized, unmotivated, procrastinating – or even lazy. Intervention in this area will teach your child strategies and introduce a new way to think in order to create the best learning environment at home and school. Your child will learn a better way to plan projects, organize assignments, prioritize and more.

What is the difference between speech, articulation & phonological disorders?

These both refer to the difficulties producing the speech sounds accurately. You may hear omitted, distorted and/or substitutions of these sounds. The biggest diagnostic difference between an articulation disorder and a phonological disorder is that an articulation disorder has no clear pattern in the difficulty of producing one or a few sounds. A phonological disorder has a multiple errors and they can be analyzed and grouped together and the errors influence the intelligibility.

It was recommended that my child, recently diagnosed with dyslexia, learn cursive hand writing and write in cursive as much as possible. Why is writing in cursive important?

Motor skills training is an important part of treating dyslexia.Struggling readers and spellers who have good intelligence and muscular strength benefit from writing in cursive. Poor spelling is often a result of making one letter when another was intended. The kinesthetic and visual or auditory memory is not adequately making connections. Struggling readers benefit most from writing in cursive because there is no doubt where the letter begins- it begins on the line.



I am wondering what is a word-finding difficulty? I think my child forgets words he knows and he gets so frustrated.

What you are describing is when a word is on the “tip of your tongue” and you can describe the word – even name a synonym or the first sound of the word – but can’t find the word you want to say. This is word-finding difficulty. The ability to easily and precisely retrieve the words from your brain when communicating. There is a range for normal difficulty in finding a word when a child is tired or anxious. However, when it happens so often that it impacts communication, treatment is warranted. Therapy can help teach strategies to retrieve words and train your brain to access these words faster and easier.


asha.org : American Speech Language and Hearing Associatioin is the national professional organization for seech therapists and audiologists.
autismspeaks.org : an autism adovacty organization
pintrest.com : search speech-language boards for more information on various therapy ideas.
dyslexia-ma.org : an amazing resource for learning about reading research, conferences and more links.
autismresourcecentral.org : learn more about events and resources in your community.
carrollschool.org/dyslexia-research/what-dyslexia : What is Dyslexia?
braingym.org: great resource of activities
www.npr.org : Article regarding a Poet learning he has dyslexia at age 58. www.dyslexia-ma.org : an amazing resource for learning about reading research, conferences and more links.
entrepreneur.com: turning a disadvantage into an advantage (dyslexia).
asha.org : activities you can do to encourage your child’s language development
childdevelopmentinfo.com/child-development/erickson : the stages of social emotional development